How workers are navigating the bureaucracy of the EEOC


For the higher half of 2019, Lisa Bowman had sounded the alarm on a male colleague’s sample of sexual harassment. At the time, Bowman was the head of advertising at nonprofit big United Approach Worldwide, which topped Forbes’s most recent list of the largest charities in the nation. Bowman says she tolerated inappropriate feedback from her colleague for months, nevertheless it wasn’t till early 2019 that she reported him to HR—first on behalf of her direct experiences, after which as a result of of a private encounter that she mentioned “crossed the line.”

United Approach had issued clear steering on how senior workers had been presupposed to deal with allegations of harassment, discrimination, or retaliation—a lot in order that failing to report such an incident might be grounds for termination. However Bowman claims that from the second she lodged a grievance with HR, she had a goal on her again: Her subsequent efficiency assessment was conspicuously much less constructive than previous critiques, and a few of her workers had been quietly moved into roles on the crew helmed by the very colleague Bowman had flagged to HR. Bowman was allegedly additionally pressured by then-CEO Brian Gallagher to oust a high-performing subordinate who had additionally complained to HR about the male colleague in query. (Bowman refused to take action.)

In January 2020, Bowman says she was abruptly let go by Gallagher, who claimed a brand new rent can be his “prime advertising man” going ahead,” rendering her function redundant. After a futile try and safe a severance package deal that she felt was commensurate together with her senior place at the firm, Bowman walked away from the negotiations and filed a grievance with the Equal Employment Alternative Fee (EEOC).


She later went public together with her allegations in a HuffPost report, which additionally documented different fees of harassment and retaliation at the group. (In a press release to Quick Firm, a United Approach spokesperson pointed to an investigation—carried out by a legislation agency employed by United Approach and overseen by its boards—which discovered that “administration appropriately dealt with the assessment, remedy, processing, and inquiry of the complaints of the three workers cited in information articles. There was no proof of retaliation towards these workers; and the employment selections had been based mostly on authentic and non-discriminatory causes.”)

Bowman turned to the EEOC in March 2020. After almost 18 months and greater than $50,000 in authorized charges, Bowman is not any nearer to a decision—or any form of justice. “It’s a course of that lets the particular person down,” she instructed Quick Firm. “I’ve been caught on this for a yr and half with no progress.” After submitting her grievance with the EEOC, Bowman had gotten no response till December 2020, when she reached out herself and eventually acquired ahold of the investigator assigned to her case. It turned out he was nonetheless processing instances from two years prior.

As the federal watchdog for office discrimination, the EEOC is usually the first line of protection for workers like Bowman alleging harassment or retaliation at the arms of their employers. A employee may search out the EEOC to report a variety of allegations, from race and intercourse discrimination to an employer refusing affordable lodging for a incapacity or being pregnant. In idea, the company isn’t just a stepping stone for most people contemplating authorized motion; the EEOC will also be a strong deterrent and gear for holding employers accountable. When Congress empowered the EEOC to litigate instances beginning in 1972—eight years after it was created—the purpose was to remodel it from what many called a “toothless tiger” into an enforcement company that might command the consideration of employers. After the People with Disabilities Act (ADA) was handed, for instance, the EEOC filed tons of of lawsuits that helped form how employers ought to interpret the ADA.

However the actuality is that submitting a cost with the EEOC is usually a sophisticated and steadily futile enterprise. The method can take completely different types relying on how the EEOC approaches a case and whether or not a employee desires to sue, nevertheless it usually begins with an inquiry and appointment for an preliminary interview, after which a employee can transfer ahead with submitting an official cost of discrimination. From there, the course of can unfold in any quantity of methods: If the EEOC determines {that a} case is unlikely to end in a “trigger willpower”—company jargon for clear proof of discrimination—then it could be dismissed outright. Meaning the onus falls on the employee to tackle the burden of authorized motion, financially and in any other case—leaving a employee who can’t afford a lawyer with few choices.

But when the EEOC believes the case has benefit, or desires extra data earlier than making a name, the subsequent step is usually mediation or a request for additional particulars from the employer. At that time, the investigation can proceed in a number of alternative ways: Somewhat than ready on the EEOC, workers who do have authorized illustration could request a proper to sue letter and transfer ahead with a lawsuit on their very own. When former Google worker Chelsey Glasson determined to sue the tech big over allegations of being pregnant discrimination, it was partially as a result of Google was unwilling to contemplate a settlement. However her legal professionals additionally knew the EEOC investigation into her claims might take months and even years to conclude. Bowman, too, might ask the EEOC to concern a proper to sue letter relatively than ready for the company to finish a full investigation of her case. However she’s optimistic that the EEOC will discover trigger, which might strengthen her case if she information a lawsuit.

Bowman’s expertise with the EEOC, nonetheless, exemplifies a sobering actuality: As of 2020, the company is extra understaffed than it has been in many years, and it’s reeling from adjustments that had been launched beneath the Trump administration. In 1980, the EEOC had a workers of 3,390; by final yr, that quantity had been slashed by greater than 40%, leaving its workforce at simply 1,939 workers. After eight years of virtually no change in the EEOC’s price range, Congress lastly accredited a $15 million improve in 2018—catalyzed in no small half by the #MeToo motion—and one other bump in 2020. Nonetheless, when adjusted for inflation, the EEOC’s price range final yr was smaller than its price range 40 years prior.


“The EEOC has at all times confronted challenges,” says Cathy Ventrell-Monsees, who was a senior advisor to a few former EEOC chairs. “Not sufficient price range. Not sufficient workers. An amazing quantity of fees. The system and constructions they put in place had been actually not meant to research and resolve the majority of fees, partially as a result of of the burden of the quantity of fees.”

Even legal professionals discover the course of troublesome to navigate, and plenty of push to acquire a proper to sue letter from the EEOC as quickly as attainable, to allow them to take issues into their very own arms. “It’s irritating, if I had been to explain the course of from the perspective of a lawyer and the shoppers I characterize,” says employment lawyer Gary Phelan, who has guided many purchasers by means of the EEOC course of. “There’s an previous adage that ‘justice delayed is justice denied,’ and boy, is justice being delayed at the EEOC.”


The EEOC has confronted a staggering backlog of instances for many years, just about since its inception. In the ’90s, the company introduced a triage system to attempt to mitigate the concern. EEOC staffers started to dismiss instances after the preliminary cost submitting in the event that they didn’t appear to have benefit, relatively than going by means of the motions of requesting extra data for each case that got here throughout their desks. However beginning round 2017, in keeping with an investigator at the EEOC who requested to stay nameless, a change in steering put new strain on staffers to categorise extra instances as low precedence and dismiss them outright—partially by limiting the quantity of instances they may have open at any given time. “We’ve at all times had staffing points,” the investigator mentioned. “However we had the capacity to say, ‘hey, that is nonetheless a trigger case.’”

“There isn’t a cap on the quantity of older investigations,” EEOC spokesperson James Ryan mentioned in a press release to Quick Firm. “The EEOC has been capable of make important progress managing our pending workload of fees by means of a deal with stock discount methods and precedence cost dealing with procedures, technological enhancements, and front-line workers employed in fiscal years 2018 by means of 2020.”

With the new protocol, nonetheless, issues modified, and the emphasis appeared to shift to closing instances: In 2018, about 30% of the EEOC’s whole caseload had been categorized as low precedence, in keeping with inside information obtained by the Center for Public Integrity. Barely 13% of fees closed in 2018 reportedly led to a settlement or different restitution for the workers in query, a notable lower from 18% 10 years prior. The Home Appropriations Committee has, lately, called for larger scrutiny of the EEOC’s triage system, requesting documentation of “any formal or casual quotas.”

“Extra instances had been getting a discover of dismissal with a proper to sue following consumption,” says Rachel Shonfield, president of the Nationwide Council of EEOC Locals No. 216, the union representing EEOC workers. “That implies that the particular person has to go discover an legal professional—and that’s daunting or costly. The union has been towards that and continues to press the want to rent individuals [and] have sufficient sources to truly work the instances.”

Ryan mentioned there was “no emphasis on dismissing fees with out enough investigation beneath these procedures. Somewhat, the EEOC’s precedence cost dealing with procedures, together with efficient pre-charge counseling, be certain that people make knowledgeable selections about whether or not to file a cost of discrimination and permits the EEOC to higher perceive the cost and strategically use our sources.”

One other supply of frustration for workers was the EEOC’s consumption system, which allowed them to file an inquiry on-line however made it virtually unattainable to schedule an precise appointment with the company. If an appointment wasn’t scheduled inside 90 days, the inquiry would mechanically be closed. “Take into consideration that: You’re an worker and also you simply confronted some discrimination, whether or not you misplaced your job or had been harassed,” Ventrell-Monsees says. “You’re traumatized in that second, and also you search assist. You do the inquiry, and it says now fill out an appointment. And it’s blocked out, no availability for months out.”

“We acknowledge that appointments are steadily booked prematurely,” Ryan mentioned. “As the company continues to rent and onboard new investigators by means of the finish of this fiscal yr, we count on to proceed so as to add appointments to calendars in workplaces the place there are shortages and higher meet the wants of the public.”

Since 2018, the EEOC has truly obtained fewer cost filings than it did 14 years in the past—which Ventrell-Monsees believes is not any coincidence. “I don’t suppose anybody would consider there’s much less discrimination in 2020,” she says. “I consider that one of the causes for the decline in cost filings is that the EEOC’s on-line system is simply too cumbersome. As an alternative of making it simpler to file fees, the EEOC has imposed layers of extra course of. That might be modified. The EEOC might permit legal professionals to file fees on-line; they may permit charging events to file fees on-line.”

Underneath Janet Dhillon—who was Donald Trump’s decide for EEOC chair and stepped into the function in 2019—some of these current shortcomings appear to have been exacerbated, in keeping with a recent report by The Nation. Dhillon has now been changed as EEOC chair by Charlotte Burrows, however she is going to stay one of 5 commissioners at the EEOC till the finish of her time period in July 2022.) Regardless of a slight price range improve in 2018 and 2020, Dhillon reportedly made little funding in hiring. “Every of the 4 years of the Trump administration, the White Home proposed cuts to the EEOC price range,” Shonfield says. “Although we averted these price range cuts, we had been nonetheless bleeding workers.”


Many of the selections Dhillon made as chair—introducing a number of pilot packages with little enter from even fellow commissioners, for instance—indicated a reluctance to litigate, in keeping with The Nation. Dhillon even altered how the company determines when to litigate instances: EEOC legal professionals and basic counsel normally had the authority to make that decision on their very own, however Dhillon insisted that each potential case be taken to a fee vote. The EEOC solely pursues litigation in a handful of instances, besides, it was a a lot much less frequent prevalence in 2020 than in years prior; the company solely filed 93 instances (as in comparison with 144 and 199 in 2019 and 2018, respectively).

But it surely’s not simply bureaucratic challenges which have ensnared the EEOC. In a twist of irony, the very company tasked with rooting out office discrimination is going through its personal such allegations: A USA Today investigation earlier this yr documented claims of discrimination on the foundation of race, incapacity, and sexual orientation. A number of allegations point out that the purported ambiance at the EEOC didn’t simply make a troublesome job even more durable for staffers who had been the targets of discrimination; it reportedly additionally influenced which instances had been prioritized for deeper investigation.

Some former EEOC staffers claimed they had been discouraged from even investigating discrimination complaints from Black workers—as a result of these instances had been so unlikely to achieve a passable decision. “We take any allegation of office misconduct severely and can examine each completely and take disciplinary actions when applicable,” Burrows mentioned in a press release offered by the EEOC.

As for the company’s method to complaints from Black workers, Ryan mentioned the EEOC “takes all fees of race discrimination towards Black/African American workers severely and thoroughly considers every case.”

The long run of the EEOC

An company like the EEOC is ostensibly designed to guard the most susceptible workers—those that can’t afford to rent a lawyer or pursue authorized motion with out its help. “We exist to have the ability to examine and probably discover aid for individuals who are not in a monetary place to place up 1000’s for an legal professional up entrance,” the EEOC investigator says. “We get the legal professional drafted fees the place individuals are represented. After which we get the instances the place anyone is available in off the avenue and says, ‘the worst factor in life has occurred to me.’” 

So what recourse do these workers have if the EEOC can’t successfully help them in its present state—if they will’t even safe an appointment, not to mention be assured an intensive investigation? The EEOC course of is taxing even for individuals like Bowman, who’ve some measure of monetary stability. “I didn’t understand how lengthy this course of was going to take,” she says. “I didn’t understand how costly it was going to be. [And] I don’t suppose I might have carried out it with out an legal professional to assist join the dots.” And but, regardless of having authorized illustration, Bowman stays caught: Till the EEOC completes its preliminary investigation, she will be able to’t transfer ahead with a lawsuit or different authorized motion.

The brand new administration may provide some reprieve for workers who get caught in the bureaucratic morass of the EEOC course of. President Biden has already nixed a conciliation rule imposed by Trump that will have been a burden on each EEOC workers and victims of discrimination, by stretching out the investigation timeline much more. And the shift in messaging with Burrows supplanting Dhillon as EEOC chair has extra of an affect than it may appear, in keeping with Ventrell-Monsees. “Her setting the tone is necessary for the investigators and the area workers,” she says. “That truly goes fairly a great distance with them.”

Shonfield echoes this sentiment, including that she believes the new management at the EEOC is eager on finally shifting away from the emphasis on closing instances with little investigation. “It’s my understanding that present management desires to see issues change, however the drawback persists on the floor,” she says.

Ventrell-Monsees can be hopeful that the EEOC will sort out bigger, systemic instances of discrimination, the place she believes the company can have extra of an affect. “I feel the EEOC has been simpler in attacking systemic discrimination,” she says, citing a sex discrimination lawsuit that the company introduced towards Mavis Low cost Tire, a New York-based tire retailer that had constantly declined to rent ladies into area positions throughout its shops. “The systemic investigations and resolutions, in addition to the lawsuits, profit a number of workers inside an organization, however employers additionally pay extra consideration to these instances.”

The EEOC union has already made a number of suggestions over the years to create a devoted consumption unit, which might liberate investigators to deal with the relaxation of the course of and sure make it a smoother expertise for workers, as nicely. “We shouldn’t be checked out simply as a guidelines to get into the courtroom system,” the EEOC investigator says. “We grew to become an administrative course of. We have to return to being an administrative treatment.”

If one of the biggest challenges going through the EEOC is continual understaffing, the company may also be nicely served by taking a look at how personal companies are courting workers amid the pandemic. Many EEOC workers have repeated a chorus that’s now acquainted to employers throughout the nation: They need to proceed working from house, or no less than have the possibility to take action. Shonfield and others at the union additionally consider it might be a key to each recruiting and retaining workers.

“Not solely does the EEOC and the authorities as employer have to compete with the personal sector, however increasingly federal businesses are asserting that they are going to proceed to permit for expanded telework for sure duties or positions,”  says Shonfield. “If the EEOC doesn’t meet the second, then it’s going to have an issue with recruitment and retention once we have already got a staffing drawback.”

Ryan mentioned the EEOC was not planning to return to workplaces any sooner than October, and never with out offering “enough discover” to workers.

In the meantime, nonetheless, individuals like Bowman are left to select up the items whereas they await a verdict. Since being fired in early 2020, Bowman hasn’t been capable of finding a brand new job. “I had a job provide get yanked at the final minute as a result of of the proven fact that I had gone public about my state of affairs,” she says. “I’ve no settlement. No unemployment or advantages. And there’s no accountability for [United Way] and what they’ve carried out to me.”

Although United Approach did solicit an investigation into Bowman’s allegations, together with the different claims introduced by her former colleagues, it seemed to review solely a fraction of the related documentation—and Bowman says she wasn’t even contacted over the course of the investigation. 

“In my thoughts, the EEOC is definitely the unbiased third celebration that may study what was submitted from either side and has no vested curiosity in both aspect,” she says. “And since my employer went public with the proven fact that they carried out an inside investigation and located no wrongdoing, that positioned me as a liar—and I consider it was defamatory. So I’m hopeful that the proper to sue with trigger letter will the truth is present the actuality of the state of affairs.”